50 Plagiarized Passages

“Antony and Cleopatra” –story by North, characters by North, images by North, words by North, credit to William Shakespeare.

In the tables that follow, quotes from Thomas North’s Plutarch’s Lives appear in the left column.  The work was first printed in 1579, the year Shakespeare turned 15 years old.  In the right column are quotes from the Roman plays — Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, and Coriolanus.  These dramas first reached print in a collection of plays “by William Shakespeare” in 1623, seven years after Shakespeare had died.  Scholars have known for centuries that these drams closely followed the writings of North, but have attributed the seemingly borrowed passages to rampant plagiarism on Shakespeare’s part.  In an examination of the origins of Antony and Cleopatra, literary scholar George Wyndham described Shakespeare’s adherence to North’s language and vision as so relentless that he portrayed the dramatist as almost transfixed, referring to him as “possessed,” “haunted” and “spellbound” by the great translator:  “Shakespeare, indeed, is saturated with North’s language, possessed by his passion.  He is haunted by the story as North told it.…”  Wyndham, in fact, used the phrase, “Shakespeare possessed by North,” as the marginal description of his passage describing Antony and Cleopatra.  The scholar C.F. Tucker Brooke was even more explicit:

“Nowhere else in Shakespeare is there an instance of verbal borrowing at the height of dramatic intensity which is comparable to these. …. In the passages I have cited there is little evidence of any attempt at improvement; indeed, it may be held in regard to several of them that the palm belongs rather to North’s prose than to Shakespeare’s poetry. That this should be so is a fact worthy of all wonder and attention, for the like can be said of no other of Shakespeare’s rivals or assistants.”

But as I have shown in North of Shakespeare and in some posts throughout this blog, the influence of all of North’s writings is conspicuous all throughout the canon – stylistically, philosophically, verbally, and substantively – far more so than anyone previously realized.   And the reason for this is simple: North was the original author of the plays, basing the dramas on his prior writings.  And Shakespeare then adapted them for the stage.  This is confirmed by all the title pages printed while he was alive:


Dozens of Plagiarisms of North found in Shakespeare’s plays

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

[Volumnia:]
Thou shalt no sooner
march forward to assault thy country
but thy foot shall tread
upon thy mother’s womb
that brought thee first unto this world.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Volumnia:]
Thou shalt no sooner
March to assault thy country than to tread
Trust to’t, thou shalt not —
on thy mother’s womb,
That brought thee to this world.
(Coriolanus)
Here lies a wretched corse,
of wretched soul bereft:  
Seek not my name: a plague consume you
wicked wretches left!
(Plutarch, exclusive)
Here lies a wretched corse,
of wretched soul bereft:  
Seek not my name: a plague consume you
wicked caitiffs left!
(Timon of Athens)
[Lucilius:]
Antonius,
I dare assure thee, that no enemy…
shall take Marcus Brutus alive:
and I beseech God keep him from that fortune.
For wheresoever he be found, alive or dead,
he will be found like himself.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Lucilius:]
Antony
I dare assure thee that no enemy
Shall ever take alive the noble Brutus:
The gods defend him from so great a shame!
When you do find him, or alive or dead,
He will be found like Brutus, like himself.
(Julius Caesar)
[Guard:]
Is that well done, Charmian?
[Charmian:]
Very well…and meet for a princess
descended…of so many noble kings.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Guard:]
Charmian, is this well done?
[Charmian:]
It is well done, and fitting for a princess
descended of so many noble kings.
(Antony & Cleopatra)
[Volumnia, begging to save Rome:]
Why dost thou not answer me?
Dost thou take it honorable for a nobleman,
to remember…wrongs?
No man living is
more bound to show himself thankful….
Thou hast not hitherto
showed thy poor mother any courtesy.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Volumnia, begging to save Rome:]
Why dost not speak?
Think’st thou it honourable for a nobleman
Still to remember wrongs?
There’s no man in the world
More bound to ‘s mother;
Thou hast never in thy life
Show’d thy dear mother any courtesy.
(Coriolanus)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

And had with him…these kings
and subjects following:
Bocchus, king of Libya; Archelaus king
of Cappadocia; Philadelphus, king
of Paphlagonia, Mithridates king of Comagene
and Adallas, king of Thracia…
Polemon, king of Pont; Manchus, king of Arabia;
Herodes, king of Jewry; & Amyntas, king of
Lycaonia…and the king of Medes…
(Plutarch, exclusive)        
The kings o’ the earth for war;
he hath assembled
Bocchus, the king of Libya; Archelaus,
Of Cappadocia; Philadelphos, king
Of Paphlagonia; the Thracian king, Adallas;
King Mauchus of Arabia; King of Pont;
Herod of Jewry; Mithridates, king
Of Comagene; Polemon and Amyntas,
The kings of Mede and Lycaonia…
(Antony and Cleopatra)
Brutus: ]
I trust…a certain rule of Philosophy,
by the which I did greatly blame and reprove
Cato for killing of himself,
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Brutus:]
Even by the rule of that Philosophy
By which I did blame Cato for the death
Which he did give himself,
(Julius Caesar)
They nourished against themselves,
the…seed and cockle of insolence and sedition,
which had been sowed and scattered abroad…
(Plutarch, exclusive)
We nourish ‘gainst our senate
The cockle of rebellion, insolence, sedition,
Which we ourselves have…sow’d and scatter’d
(Coriolanus)
In the show place,
where young men do exercise
He called the sons, the kings of kings,
and gave Alexander Armenia, Media,
and Parthia; and unto Ptolemy for his portion,
Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
I’ the common show-place,
where they exercise
His sons he there proclaim’d the kings of kings:
Great Media, Parthia, and Armenia,
He gave to Alexander; to Ptolemy he assign’d
Syria, Cilicia, and Phoenicia:
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Antony:]
But I do assure you, you
have taken a better booty.  For I had rather have
such men my friends …than enemies.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Antony: ]
But I assure you,
A prize no less in worth:  I had rather have
Such men my friends than enemies.
(Julius Caesar)
[Pompey:]
Thou shouldst have done it
and never have told it me.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Pompey:]
This thou shouldst have done,
And not have spoken on’t.
(Antony and Cleopatra)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

[Cominius:]
he should choose out of all the horses
they had taken.., and of all the goods…
(whereof there was great store)
ten of every sort which he liked best,
before any distribution
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Cominius:]
Of all the horses,
Whereof we have ta’en good
and good store of all
We render you the tenth, to be ta’en forth,
Before the common distribution,
(Coriolanus)
[Soothsayer:]
Thy demon, that is to say, the good angel and
spirit that keepeth thee, is
courageous and high
when he is alone, [but] becometh fearful and
timorous when he commeth near
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Soothsayer:]
Thy demon, that’s thy
spirit which keeps thee, is
Noble, courageous, high, unmatchable,
Where Caesar’s is not; but, near him, thy angel
Becomes a fear
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Pompey and Antony, after the bargain:]
One of them did feast another, and drew cuts
who should begin.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Pompey and Antony, after the bargain:]
We’ll feast each other ere we part; and let’s
Draw lots who shall begin.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
The house of the Marcians at Rome…sprung
many noble personages: whereof
Ancus Marcius was one, king Numa’s
daughters son,
who was king of Rome after Tullus Hostilius.
Of the same house were Publius and Quintus,
who brought to Rome their best waterby
conduits. Censorinus also came of that family, that
was so surnamed, because the people had
chosen him Censor twice.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
.
…what stock he springs of,
The noble house o’ the Marcians, from whence
came  /That Ancus Coriolanus, Numa’s
daughter’s son,
Who, after great Hostilius, here was king;
Of the same house Publius and Quintus were,
That our best water brought by conduits hither;
And Censorinus, nobly named so,
Twice being, by the people chosen, Censor,
Was his great ancestor.
(Coriolanus)
[On Pompey’s and Antony’s bargain:]
They had agreed that…Pompeius should have
Sicily and Sardinia, with this condition: he should
rid the sea of…pirates..., send
a certain of wheat to Rome;
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Pompey, on his bargain with Antony:]
You have made me offer
Of Sicily, Sardinia; and I must
Rid all the sea of pirates; then, to send
Measures of wheat to Rome…
(Antony and Cleopatra)
fight a battle with him in…Pharsalia
as Julius Caesar and Pompey had done before
(Plutarch, exclusive)
wage this battle at Pharsalia.
Where Caesar fought with Pompey
(Antony and Cleopatra)
Had nineteen legions whole by land
and twelve thousand horsemen
(Plutarch, exclusive)       
Our nineteen legions thou shalt hold by land,
And our twelve thousand horse
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Coriolanus: ]
for my surname of Coriolanus... I never had other
…recompense of all the..painful service I have
done and the extreme dangers I have been in.
But this only surname: a good memory,
and witness of the malice and displeasure
thou shouldst bear me.  Indeed the name only
remaineth
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
My surname, Coriolanus: the painful service,
The extreme dangers and the drops of blood
Shed for my thankless country are requited.
But with that surname; a good memory,
And witness of the malice and displeasure
Which thou shouldst bear me: only that name
remains;
(Coriolanus)
For matters
being well digested, and their counsels
thoroughly examined, touching the benefit of the
common wealth: the Senators are cause of the
common commodity that commeth unto…you.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
For examine /
Their counsels.., digest things rightly
Touching the weal o’ the common, you shall find
No public benefit which you receive
But it proceeds or comes from them to you
(Coriolanus)
Caesar had quickly passed the sea Ionium
and taken Toryne.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
He had so quickly cut the Ionian sea,
And taken Toryne
(Antony and Cleopatra)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

[Coriolanus: ]
speed thee now,
and let my misery serve thy turn, and so use it
as my service may be a
benefit to the Volsces…/ And if it be so
that thou dare not, and that thou art weary to
prove fortune any more: then am I also
weary to live any longer.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus: ]
speed thee straight,
And make my misery serve thy turn: so use it
That my revengeful services may prove
As benefits to thee…./ But if so be
Thou darest not this and that to prove more
fortunes /Thou’rt tired, then, in a word, I also am
Longer to live most weary.
(Coriolanus)
[Antony, on his last supper:]
He commanded his ..household servants that
they should fill his cups full
and make ..much of him.
“[Y]ou know not whether…tomorrow
you shall serve another master.”
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Antony, on his last supper:]
Call forth my household servants:
Scant not my cups;
and make…much of me
Perchance tomorrow
You’ll serve another master.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
That on a time all the members of man’s body did
rebel against the belly
(Plutarch, exclusive
That where was a time when all the body’s
members / Rebell’d against the belly
(Coriolanus)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

[Brutus on the death of Cassius:]
The last of all the Romans,
being unpossible that Rome
should ever breed again so noble..a man…
his body [is] to be.. sentto the city of Thasos
lest his funerals within the camp
should cause great disorder.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Brutus on the death of Cassius: ]
The last of all the Romans, fare thee well!
It is impossible that ever Rome
Should breed thy fellow.
to Thasos send his body:
His funerals shall not be in our camp,
Lest it discomfort us.
(Julius Caesar)
[Coriolanus:]
Oh mother,
what haue you done to me?
Oh mother,
you have won a happy victory for your country,
but mortal and unhappy
for your son:
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
O mother, mother!
What have you done?
O my mother, mother! O!
You have won a happy victory to Rome;
But, for your son..,
….most mortal to him.
(Coriolanus)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

[Antony on his weakness:]
I am indeed condemned to be judged of less
courage and noble mind than a woman.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Antony on his weakness:]
I…condemn myself to lack
The courage of a woman; less noble mind
(Antony and Cleopatra)
Labienus conquered all Asia with the army of the
Parthians, from the river of Euphrates,
and from Syria,
unto the countries of Lydia and Ionia.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
Labienus.. hath, with his Parthian force,
Extended Asia from Euphrates;
….from Syria
To Lydia and to Ionia;
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Cassius:]
I have lived
to see one of my best friends taken…
before my face!
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Cassius:]
.. to live so long,
To see my best friend ta’en
before my face!
(Julius Caesar)
[Proculeius:]
Be of good cheer;  and not be afraid.
refer all unto Caesar,
[Charmian:]
O poor Cleopatra, thou art taken
[Proculeius:]
…Thou shalt do thyself great wrong...
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Proculeius:]
Be of good cheer;…fear nothing.
Make your full reference freely to my lord
[Charmian:]
O Cleopatra, thou art taken, queen.
[Proculeius:]
Do not yourself such wrong.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Volumnia:]
If we held our peace, my son,
and determined not to speak,
the state of our poor bodies and..our raiment
would easily bewray to thee what life
we have led at home, since thy exile
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Volumnia:]
Should we be silent
and not speak, our raiment
And state of bodies
would bewray what life
We have led since thy exile...
(Coriolanus)
[Caesar’s response to Antony’s challenge to
personal combat:]
Antonius sent again to challenge Caesar...
hand to hand.  Caesar answered him that
he had many other ways to die.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Caesar’s response to Antony’s challenge to
personal combat:]
He dares me to personal combat,
Caesar to Antony: let the old ruffian know
I have many other ways to die.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Coriolanus:]
I am Caius Martius, who hath done
to thy self particularly, and to all the Volsces...
great hurt and mischief
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
My name is Caius Coriolanus, who hath done
To thee particularly and to all the Volsces
Great hurt and mischief
(Coriolanus)
the poop whereof was of gold,
the sails of purple…,the oars of silver
kept stroke … after… the music of the flutes…
[F]or the person of herself:  She was laid
under a pavilion of cloth of gold of tissue
attired like the Goddess Venus commonly
drawn in picture on either hand of her,
pretty fair boys appareled as …Cupid,
with little fans in their hands, …
(Plutarch, exclusive)
the poop was beaten gold;
Purple the sails, … the oars were silver,
Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke,
For her own personshe did lie
In her pavilioncloth-of-gold of tissue
O’er-picturing that Venus where we see
The fancy outwork nature: on each side her
Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids,
With divers-colour’d fans
(Antony and Cleopatra)
He may be called a fool that condemneth all
others for fools: and advanceth
himself to be wise.
(Doni, original)
The fool doth think he is wise,
but the wise man knows
himself to be a fool.
(As You Like It)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

To see Antonius…
that was brought up in all fineness and
superfluity… drink puddle water…
It is reported that even as they passed the Alps,
they did eat the barks of trees, and such
beasts, as never man tasted of their flesh
before.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
Antony…,
Though daintily brought up…
didst drinkthe gilded puddle
The barks of trees thou browsed’st; on the Alps
It is reported thou didst eat
strange flesh,
(Antony and Cleopatra)
Octavius Caesar, Antony, and Lepidus
Did set up bills of proscription and outlawry,
Condemning two hundredto death
(Plutarch, exclusive)
That by proscription and bills of outlawry,
Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus
Have put to death an hundred senators.
(Julius Caesar)
In the show place
upon a high tribunal silvered,
he set two chairs of gold, for himself,
and…Cleopatra,
he did establish Cleopatra Queen of Egypt,
of Cyprus, of Lydia, and of the lower Syria.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
I’ the market-place,
on a tribunal silver’d,
Cleopatra and himself in chairs of gold...
Unto her
He gave the stablishment of Egypt; made her
Of lower Syria, Cyprus, Lydia / Absolute queen.
(Antony and Cleopatra)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

O noble Eros…, it is valiantly done, to show me
what I should…which thou couldst not….
(Plutarch, exclusive)
Thou teachest me, O valiant Eros,
what I should, and thou couldst not.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Coriolanus:]
they that gave counsel…that the
corn should be given out gratis, as they used to
do in…Greece,
where the people
had more absolute power:
did but only nourish their disobedience..,
to the utter ruinof the whole state.
They will not think it is done in recompense of
their service past,…neither for their accusations
whichthey have..
made good against the Senate:
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
Whoever gave that counsel, to give forth
The corn o’ the storehouse gratis, as ’twas used
Sometime in Greece…
Though there the people
had more absolute power,
I say, they nourish’d disobedience, fed
The ruin of the state….They know the corn
Was not our recompense, resting well assured
That ne’er did service for’t….the accusation
Which they have often
made against the Senate…
(Coriolanus)
Caesar is determined to take his journey
through Syria, and that within three days
he would send her away before with her children
(Plutarch, exclusive)
Caesar through Syria
Intends his journey; and within three days
You with your children will he send before.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Antony’s dying speech to Cleopatra:]
She should trust Proculeius above any…about
Caesar…She should not lament nor sorrow for
the miserable change of his fortune at the end
[but] should think him the more fortunate, for the
former triumphs….
[W]hile he lived he was the noblest and greatest
Prince of the world, & that now he was overcome,
not cowardly, but valiantly, a Roman by
another Roman.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Antony’s dying speech to Cleopatra:]
None about Caesar trust but Proculeius.
The miserable change now at my end
Lament nor sorrow at;
but please your thoughts /In feeding them with
those my former fortunes
Wherein I lived, the greatest prince o’ the world,
The noblest; and do now not basely die,
Not cowardly …[but]—a Roman by a Roman
Valiantly vanquish’d.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Ghost:]
I am thy evil spirit,Brutus and
thou shalt see me by the city of Philippes
[Brutus:]
Well, then I shall see thee again.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Ghost: ]
Thy evil spirit, Brutus….
thou shalt see me at Philippi.
[Brutus:]
Well; then I shall see thee again
(Julius Caesar)
[Caesar:]
The ides of March be come.
[Soothsayer:]
So be they, but…not past.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Caesar:]
The ides of March are come.
[Soothsayer:]
Ay, Caesar, but not gone…
(Julius Caesar)
[Coriolanus:]
(Martius unmuffled himself) If
thou knowest me not yet, Tullus,
and seeing me, dost not
perhaps believe me to be the man I am…,
I must of necessity bewray myself
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
If, Tullus, (Unmuffling)
Not yet thou knowest me,
and, seeing me, dost not
Think me for the man I am, necessity
Commands me name myself.
(Coriolanus)
Here lie I, Timon; who, alive,
all living men did hate:
Pass by and curse thy fill,
but pass and stay not here thy gait.’
(Plutarch, exclusive)
Here lie I, Timon; who, alive,
all living men did hate:
Pass by and curse thy fill,
but pass and stay not here thy gait.’
(Timon of Athens)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

Brutus…did
condemn and noted Lucius Pella
Brutus answered,
Remember the Ides of March.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Cassius: ]
You have condemn’d and noted Lucius Pella
[Brutus:]
Remember March. The ides of March remember.
(Julius Caesar)
[Soldier:]
O noble emperor, how cometh…
you trust these vile brittle ships?
Do you mistrust
These wounds of mine and my sword?
Let the Egyptians
and the Phoenicians fight by sea, and set us
on the mainland, where we use to conquer,
or to be slain on our feet
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Soldier:]
O noble emperor, do not fight by sea;
Trust not to rotten planks:
Do you misdoubt
This sword and these my wounds?
Let the Egyptians
And the Phoenicians go a-ducking; we
Have used to conquer, standing on the earth,
And fighting foot to foot.
(Antony and Cleopatra)
The chiefest points of his accusations..
were these:  That having spoiled
Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, he did not give him
his part of the isle.  
(Plutarch, exclusive)
The people have now received
His accusations…that having in Sicily
Sextus Pompeius spoil’d, we had not rated him
His part o’ the isle.  
(Antony and Cleopatra)

Thomas North
(penned 1557-1579)

William Shakespeare
( plagiarism early 1600’s)

Martius asked him how the order of their
enemies battle was, and on which side they had
placed their best fighting men.
The Consul made him aunswer…
the bands …in the vaward of their battle were
those of the Antiates.
Then prayed Martius, to be set directly against
them.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
How lies their battle?  Know you on which side
They have placed their men of trust?
[Cominius:]
Their bands i’ the vaward are the Antiates.
[Coriolanus:]
I do beseech you,
Set me against Aufidius and his Antiates;
(Coriolanus)
[Brutus:]
O, Ligarius, in what a time
art thou sick!
[Ligarius:]
Brutusif thou hast any great enterprise in         
hand worthy of thyself, I am whole.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Brutus:]
O, what a time have you chose…
Would you were not sick!
[Ligarius:]
I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand
Any exploit worthy the name of honour.
(Julius Caesar)
that he bequeathed unto every citizen of Rome,
seventy-five drachmas a man,
and that he left his gardens
and arbors unto the people, which he had
on this side of the river of Tiber.
(Plutarch, exclusive)
To every Roman citizen he gives,
To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.
Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
His private arbors and new-planted orchards,
On this side Tiber
(Julius Caesar)
[Coriolanus:]
This extremity
hath now driven me to thy chimney hearth,
not of any hope
I have to save my life thereby, For if
I had feared death,
I would not have come hither
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Coriolanus:]
This extremity
Hath brought me to thy hearth;
not out of hope…
to save my life, for if
I had fear’d death…
I would have ‘voided thee…
(Coriolanus)
[Antony:]
thou hast
Hipparchus…my enfranchised bondmen
with thee: hang him if thou wilt, or whip him at
thy pleasure
(Plutarch, exclusive)
[Antony:]
he has
Hipparchus, my enfranched bondman, whom
He may at pleasure whip, or hang, or torture…
(Antony and Cleopatra)
[Coriolanus:]
Fortune had opened the gates
of the city more for the followers
than the fliers
[Coriolanus:]
Now the gates are ope’…
Tis for the followers fortune widens them,
Not for the fliers

[1] George Wyndham, Plutarch’s Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, Englished by Sir Thomas North, With an Introduction by George Wyndham, David Nutt – London, 1895, xciv.

[2] C.F. Tucker Brooke (ed.), “Introduction to Shakespeare’s Plutarch, Vol. 2 containing the main sources of Anthony and Cleopatra and of Coriolanus.,” ed. C.F. Tucker Brooke (New York: Duffield and Company, 1909), xi

[3] Felix Emmanuel Schelling, English Literature During the Lifetime of Shakespeare, Henry Holt and Company, 1910, 280

One Response to 50 Plagiarized Passages

  1. Pingback: 10 more verbal fingerprints of North in 10 more Shakespearean plays: | northofshakespeare

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